In recent years, further advancements in scientific field technologies have resulted in many products for pharmaceutical companies. Oligo (oligonucleotides) are short nucleic polymer chains that bind to RNA and DNA sequences having a wide range of uses in research, genetic testing as well as forensic applications. They are made in labs held in universities and pharmaceutical companies by employing a procedure called solid-phase chemical synthesis and they can be created with user-specific sequences. Oligo may also be also found in its natural state because an oligo is found as a tiny RNA molecule and it has an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Oligo – these sections of nucleic acids – are essential for artificial production of gene and PCR (polymerase chain reaction), as well as DNA sequencing procedures.
Oligo may be modified in many ways, including:
- Phosphorylation: Phosphorylation can be made on oligonucleotides in order to help in research. 5′ phosphorylation is necessary when oligo is used as a DNA ligase substrate. 3′ phosphorylation is needed to block DNA polymerase extension.
- Fluorescent labeling: You can choose from over 200 labels, depending on the details of your research. Fluorescent labeling is the most widely used method for the modification of Oligos and the easiest one to use in detecting DNA sequences.
- Biotinylation: Biotin is used for RNA and DNA detection. A Biotin which is covalently attached to a nucleic acid is called Biotinylation.
- Wobble bases: Wobble is a mix of bases that can be introduced to DNA in oligo sequence at any position. Such oligos are usually needed for combinatorial chemistry and random mutagenesis.